So while I really need to write a post about all this some day:
The time penalties on the FAST were based on making it smarter for moderate shooters to take their time to get a hit rather than go too fast and miss. A lot of people can make two head shots in 4s and four body shots in 4s discounting the additional time of the draw and reload. So if they try to go faster and miss, it’s on them.
For more advanced shooters, the penalties really are MUCH greater than the time it would take them to guarantee hits. If they’d just slow down to make sure every shot was a hit, they’d definitely get their best score. The ones who decide to go hero-or-zero and have misses, well, that’s on them.